Masked Cytokines / Interferons (IFNs)
The interferons (IFN), including IFNα and IFNβ (type I) and IFNγ (type II) are essential mediators of anti-cancer immunity. In addition to their direct anti-proliferative effects against many cancers, IFNs can have a multitude of immunotherapeutic effects including enhancement of CD8+ T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, dendritic cell maturation, and suppression of regulatory T cells.
IFNα (also termed “immune interferon”), the IFN species secreted by effector CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and NKT cells, has pleiotropic activities including direct inhibition of cell growth, upregulation of class I and II MHC molecules for enhanced immune recognition, and regulation of the activity of NK cells, B cells, macrophages and T cells skewing the immune response toward the Th1 phenotype that is associated with effective anti-cancer immunity.
Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs) with multiple Immune-Modulating Prodrugs (IMPs), are able to modulate a tumor-immune response through multiple mechanisms.
Designed to tackle the key challenges of immunotherapies.
Enables incorporation of multiple immunotherapy mechanisms of action into a single drug product , thereby enhancing efficacy and reducing development time/costs.
Prodrug design and incorporation into Nammisome maintains immunotherapy in an inactive state in circulation and prevents ‘leaching’ of the agents from the nanoparticles, enhancing pharmacokinetics and preventing systemic immune activation.
Physicochemical properties of Nammisomes are designed to allow them to avoid uptake by cells in circulation, while taking advantage of the abnormal and leaky vasculature of tumors to escape and accumulate within tumors.